The globalisation and social transformation processes have increased the priority of preservation of the environment and, therefore, Ukraine must take immediate steps. For a long time, the country’s economy has been developing with unbalanced use of natural resources and low priority of environmental protection making balanced (sustainable) development impossible.
The reform is aimed to prevent the adverse impact of climate change, adapt to climate change and preserve the ozone layer by improving public policy for achieving the county’s sustainable development, creating legal and institutional prerequisites for the gradual transition to low-carbon development together with economic, energy and environmental security and improving people’s welfare.
Documents ratified: the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Kyoto Protocol thereto, the Paris Agreement, the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer;
the first Nationally Determined Contribution of Ukraine to the Paris Agreement has been approved and sent to the Secretariat of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change;
Law of Ukraine No. 337-IX of 12 December 2019 “On Principles of Monitoring, Reporting and Verification of Greenhouse Gas Emissions” has been adopted;
Law of Ukraine No. 376-IX of 12 December 2019 “On regulation of activities using ozone-depleting substances and fluorinated greenhouse gases” has been adopted;
the Strategy of Low Carbon Development of Ukraine for the period up to 2050 has been approved;
the Concept of Public Policy in Climate Change for the period up to 2030 has been approved;
the Action Plan for the implementation of the Concept of Public Policy in Climate Change has been approved.
Climate change and the depletion of the ozone layer are among the major challenges of the world development posing potentially serious threats to the global economy and international security due to increased direct and indirect risks related to energy security, provision of food and drinking water, stability of ecosystems, risks to health and people’s lives. The country’s poor ability to adapt to the consequences of climate change such as floods, drought, coastal degradation and prolonged periods of abnormal heat, can cause social and economic instability. In the recent decades, climate change and ozone depletion have become some of the world’s most pressing economic and political challenges in terms of developing strategies to reduce ozone-depleting and greenhouse gas emissions and gradually move to a low-carbon development path in all economic sectors and aspects of human life.
The key drivers for finding an urgent solution of the climate change and the ozone layer preservation issues are:
the need to improve the legislative and regulatory framework in this area;
lack of transparency in the division of responsibilities, poor coordination of public agencies’ actions and institutional capacity in planning and taking measures in this area;
inconsistency of the climate change policy with laws and regulations in other social and economic areas;
lack of a system approach to creating a scientific basis for activities aimed at managing climate change and ozone depletion.
Integrated government climate change and ozone depletion policies harmonised with the international law are difficult to develop and implement due to the multidisciplinary nature of this problem. Politically, economically and scientifically sound climate change and ozone depletion decisions should be taken for all sectors of the economy, including energy, manufacturing industry, agriculture, transport, water management, forestry, housing and utilities, land use, health, conservation and reproduction of ecosystems.
It is proposed to focus in the mid-term on the following key areas to develop comprehensive government climate change and ozone depletion policies harmonised with the international law:
reduction in greenhouse gas emissions;
adaptation to global climate change;
reduction in the use and phasing out of ozone-depleting substances and fluorinated greenhouse gases.
Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is aimed at developing and putting in place policies and measures reducing man-made emissions or increasing the absorption of greenhouse gases in the medium- to long-term perspective.
Adaptation to global climate change involves creating the conditions for addressing and preventing the negative impact of climate change, reducing climate change risks and vulnerabilities for all sectors of the economy and natural ecosystems with regard to specific regional climate change and priorities of regional development strategies.
Reduction in the use and phasing out of ozone-depleting substances and fluorinated greenhouse gases are aimed to reduce technologies and equipment that use ozone-depleting substances and fluorinated greenhouse gases; this task is expected to be performed through regulation, government support and international technical assistance for conversion.
To develop and approve the second Nationally Determined Contribution of Ukraine to the Paris Agreement.
To approve a comprehensive National Energy and Climate Change Plan to 2021—2030.
To adopt regulations implementing Law of Ukraine “On Principles of Monitoring, Reporting and Verification of Greenhouse Gas Emissions”.
To adopt regulations implementing Law of Ukraine “On regulation of activities using ozone-depleting substances and fluorinated greenhouse gases”.
The Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources of Ukraine, the Ministry of Energy of Ukraine, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the United Nations Development Programme, the World Bank, the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ), the European Commission
· The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
· The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
· Association Agreement between the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and their member states, of the one part, and Ukraine, of the other part
· Order No. 980-р issued by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on 16 September 2015 “On approval of the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of Ukraine to the new global climate draft agreement”
Order No. 932-р issued by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on 07 December 2016 “On approval of the concept of implementation of the state climate change policy to 2030”
Order No. 878-р issued by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on 06 December 2017 “On approval of the action plan implementing the state climate change policy to 2030”
Law of Ukraine No. 337-IX of 12 December 2019 “On Principles of Monitoring, Reporting and Verification of Greenhouse Gas Emissions”;
· The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer
Law of Ukraine No. 376-IX of 12 December 2019 “On regulation of activities using ozone-depleting substances and fluorinated greenhouse gases”
The purpose of the reform is to create the proper infrastructure of waste management facilities, improve the state of the environment, health conditions, disease control and well-being of the communities.
The reform is also aimed to reduce waste generation and, hence, waste accumulation at landfills and dumps, intensify waste sorting and recycling, promote the use of waste-free and sustainable technology.
The National Waste Management Strategy of Ukraine to 2030 has been approved: it defines the vision, priorities and targets of the reform.
The Government has approved the National Waste Management Plan defining the goals and practices to be used by Ukraine to implement the new European waste management model by 2030.
The Steering Group for the implementation of the National Waste Management Strategy of Ukraine to 2030 has been established to help coordinate the steps taken by central and local executive bodies for the development and introduction of the state waste management policy.
The following key bills are supported by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine: “On waste management”, “On electrical and electronic equipment waste”, “On batteries and accumulators”.
Guidelines for the development of regional waste management plans have been approved by Order No. 142 of 12 April 2019. The waste management system has two key levels — national and regional. At the national level, the strategic vision is being implemented together with the key performance indicators that are expected to be achieved. At the regional level, the exact numbers of objects and subjects of waste management are being planned on a cluster basis, i.e. where and how waste is generated and what to deal with it.
The guidelines have been developed for the Ukrainian regions so that they prepare their own regional plans with local waste management manuals which will be transformed into investment plans.
Annually, the country generates about 400 mln tons of waste and only 6% of them is recycled. This is an extremely low percentage compared to the EU countries where about 40% of all waste is recycled.
Significant amounts of waste accumulated in Ukraine and the lack of effective waste management aggravate the environmental crisis and inhibit the development of the national economy.
The absence of an effective waste management mechanism, low institutional capacity of government agencies, poor interdepartmental cooperation and lack of strategic planning cause the appearance of new dumps and congestion of landfills.
Ukraine is implementing the EU waste management Directives into the national legislation pursuant to the Association Agreement with the EU to improve the waste management system, transit to a circular economy, introduce an effective waste management hierarchy and extended producer responsibility, and to create a robust management planning system at the national, regional and local levels.
1. Introduction of key concepts
One of the important goals of the reform is to create a set of definitions consistent with the EU legislation. These new terms together with the National Waste List will help discuss waste management issues with the EU using the same language.
2. Extended producer responsibility
The reform will introduce sole producer responsibility for the management of the waste generated at each stage of product use. The extended producer responsibility system will apply to the following types of products: packaging, electrical and electronic equipment, batteries and accumulators, end-of-life vehicles, oils, tires, etc.
3. National Waste List
The reform will form the basis for making up the National Waste List fully conforming to the EU list. Waste will be classified under the National Waste List and the Waste Classification Procedure by origin, composition and hazardous substance concentration threshold.
The National Waste List will require that waste is identified as:
To support consideration of key reform bills in the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine.
To develop and submit to the Government for approval documentation on establishment of a central executive body for waste management.
To develop regional waste management plans.
To launch an information centre for the collection, processing, analysis and dissemination of waste management information.
Entities involved in the reform implementation
The Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources of Ukraine, the Ministry of Communities and Territories Development of Ukraine, the Ministry of Economic Development, Trade and Agriculture of Ukraine, the Ministry of Health of Ukraine, the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, Vtorma Association, the Ukrainian Production and Environmental Association for Procurement and Use of Secondary Raw Materials, the Swiss-Ukrainian Decentralisation Support Project (DESPRO), American Chamber of Commerce in Ukraine, NGO EcoReanimation, NGO Ecoaction, NGO Ukraine Without Waste, NGO Mama-86, the National Ecological Centre of Ukraine, NPO Batareiky Zdavaitesia! NGO Chysta Kraina.
Association Agreement between Ukraine and the EU
The National Waste Management Strategy of Ukraine to 2030
The National Waste Management Plan to 2030
Framework Directive № 2008/98/EC on waste and repealing certain Directives
Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste
Directive 2006/21/EC on the management of waste from extractive industries and amending Directive 2004/35/EC