Livytsky Andriy Mykolayovych was born on April
9, 1879 at the farm of Krasny (Zolotonosha district, Poltava province). He
was a descendant of an old Cossack
family. He studied at the Pryluky gymnasium, then in Kyiv Pavlo Halagan’s
Collegium, and since 1896 at mathematical and juridical faculties of the St.
Volodymyr Kyiv University. A. Livytsky took active part in the work of
Ukrainian student’s society. In 1897 and 1899 he was held in the Lukianivska
prison. He was expelled from the University and exiled to Poltava district
«under the secret surveillance of police» for taking part in the student’s
strike of 1899. In 1901 he became an active member of Revolutionary Ukrainian
Party (RUP). In 1902– 1903 he was a
member of its Kyiv Committee, then he led the party circle in Lubny. He was a
member of Ukrainian Social Democratic Revolutionary Party USDRP since 1905. He was put in jail for
participation in revolutionary events of 1906, escaped, but in 1907 he was
arrested again and was imprisoned for one year and a half.
After obtaining the University diploma in 1903,
he served in the Lubny Circuit Court, and then, since 1905 he was a barrister
of the Kharkiv Court Chamber, and in 1913–1917 an elected judge of
Zolotonosha district in Poltava province.
On March 16, 1917 A. Livytsky was elected to the
post of Zolotonosha District Commissar, in April he took part in the USDRP
conference in Kyiv. On June 2, at the First All-Ukrainian Peasant’s Congress
he became a member of Provisional
Central Committee of the Peasant’s Union from Poltava province, became a
member of Ukrainian Central Rada. From August 1 he was the Poltava province
commissar. In 1917 – early 1918 he headed the Zolotonosha district committee
of USDRP and was a member of the Poltava province party Committee.
In the reign of P.Skoropadsky, A. Livytsky
served a jurisconsult of the Central Ukrainian Cooperative Committee; during
the anti-Hetman revolt in October-December 1918 he was a district and
province deputy commissar in the Poltava province. In the Directory
government he worked as Provisional Deputy Minister for Internal Affairs,
Assistant Minister and Minister of Justice, head of the Foreign Affairs
Ministry, deputy head of the Council of People’s Ministers, and, at last,
from October 14 to November 18, 1920 – a Prime Minister of the Ukrainian
Living as an emigrant in 1921 he was the deputy
head of V. Prokopovich government and Minister of Justice, in 1922–1926 he
was a Prime Minister and, after S. Petlyura’s death in 1926 headed Directory
and assumed the post of the Chief Ataman of the UPR Army in Exile.
At the same time he was a head of the UPR State
centre in Poland during German occupation but he was connected with Ukrainian
emigration in other countries. After war he resided in Germany and was one of
the initiators of founding the Ukrainian National Rada in exile, which first
session was opened on July 16, 1948 in Auchsburg.
A. Livytsky died on January 17, 1954 in
Karlsrube. He was buried in Münich and soon his ashes were transferred to
Ukrainian Memorial Cemetery in Bound-Broock in the vicinity of New York.